What is Uveitis?
A sheath consisting of 3 layers surrounds the gel-like substance in the middle of the eye, which is similar in structure to a ball. The outermost part is the white part called sclera, and the inner part is called the retina and uvea is located in the middle. Uveitis is called uveitis. Uvea contains veins that feed the eye. The inflammation here affects all tissues of the eye. This situation causes situations that seriously threaten vision. Uveitis is considered as a special field of eye diseases. Uveitis is a disease that can be achieved if the follow-up treatment is carried out without delay and the patient is accepted and well understood.
What are the symptoms and cause of uveitis?
Sensitivity to light, pain, redness in the eye, decreased vision are the most important symptoms. Viruses, fungi and parasites can cause uveitis in some patients, although in most cases there is no cause. In addition, diseases in other parts of the body (arthritis, Behçet’s Disease) can cause.
What are the causes of uveitis?
The cause of uveitis cannot be found in 30-40 percent of patients. Uveitis can be caused by viruses, fungi and parasites, or it can also be a symptom of a disease in the body. So it is necessary to investigate various assays and diseases. We also see uveitis accompanied by systemic diseases. Behçet’s disease can be given as an example. However, not all uveitis are caused by Behçet’s Disease.
Other diseases that can cause uveitis can be expressed as follows. Infections (bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi) can spread to other areas (tuberculosis, syphilis, herpes, toxoplasmosis, etc.), eye trauma, immune system diseases, rheumatic diseases, ulcerative colitis.
Behçet’s disease In 1937, Ord. Prof. dr. It is a disease defined by Hulusi Behçet and has three main symptoms in the form of aphtha in the mouth, uveitis in the eye, and sores in the genital organs.
It is basically a vascular inflammation that can involve various systems such as skin, joints, digestive and nervous system, large vessels, outside the eye. It was a disease that ended with blindness in 2-3 years when it could not be treated. Today, 80% success is achieved because the disease is better understood and immunosuppressive treatment options are expanding.
Eye involvement, brain-nerve system and large vessel involvement in Behçet’s disease are considered as vital organ involvement (vital) because it affects the quality of life of the person and is especially important when the frequency of Behçet’s disease in our country is taken into consideration.
How is uveitis diagnosed?
When the symptoms begin, you should see an ophthalmologist. Inflammation can cause permanent loss of vision. In addition to eye examination, it may be necessary to investigate a systemic disease in various situations. In this case, rheumatologists, internists can be made joint research.
How is Uveitis Treatment?
Especially, drops containing steroids and pupil-enlarging drugs are frequently used. Inflammation deeper in the eye may require the use of systemic drugs. Various complications such as glaucoma, cataract, neovascularization (formation of new vessels) may develop.
Regardless of its severity, uveitis is an urgent disease and needs to be recognized immediately. When it is late, the disease progresses and may cause permanent side effects such as deformities of the pupil, cataracts and increased eye pressure.
Some diseases can be diagnosed immediately because of their very typical appearance. Even in this case, if the posterior part of the eye is involved, advanced techniques such as angiography, ultrasonography, ERG may be necessary to understand the extent to which vision is threatened and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. When the symptoms begin, you should see an ophthalmologist; joint treatment with the internal medicine-rheumatology unit may be required after treatment has started.
What are the symptoms of uveitis?
When uveitis is localized in the anterior region of the eye, it presents in the form of redness in the eye, blurred vision or decreased vision, pain around the eye, sensitivity to light and fluctuations during exacerbations. If exacerbation or activation is behind, the symptoms are mostly blurred vision and decreased vision. In the central region of the exacerbation, the appearance is sudden visual loss and permanent visual loss occurs as it causes damage to the tissues. exacerbations and damages outside the central region are manifested by blurred vision and although they end up with sequelae, there is no permanent loss of vision unless the macula is affected.
Uveitis is a disease that is treated. Even if treatment ends, the patient should be monitored periodically. As the disease may recur, it is imperative that the controls be discontinued, or questioning about different symptoms related to other organs. For example, aphthae in the mouth, skin spots ?.
If uveitis is recognized immediately, vision can be preserved or recovered. Early diagnosis, correct treatment, frequent and good follow-up, patient physician compliance and eye can be saved.